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Coronal Mass Ejections from the Sun Pose a Big Threat to Ear

整理: AG集&#时间: 2018-11-04

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One of the biggest threats to Earth is nuclear war. Another of the biggest existential threats actually comes from our own sun.

A depiction of a coronal mass ejection, with Earth to scale. Image credits: NASA / GoddarAAAAAAAA>As a result of its magnetic poles reversing position, the sun goes through 11-year 搜狐体育solar cycles in activity, appearance and other physical phenomena that have been observed for centuries. It is during these seasonal cycles that solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) occur. These CMEs spew massive amounts of X-rays, charged particles, and magnetized plasma across the solar system.

According to research scientist Dean Pesnell of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, we are entering a cyclical period when there are few if any sunspots and subsequent solar flares. However, the Sun’s activity should soon be on the rise again, as long as the Sun does not enter a “grand” minimum solar perioAAAAAAAA>During such periods, sunspot and solar flare activity diminish for days at a time. The date of the minimum solar period is calculated by taking the average of sunspot activity over 12 months. As a result, identifying the precise date of the minimum solar period usually happens six months after it takes place.

Contents

  • 1 CMEs Can Interfere with Electronic Communication and Navigation Equipment
  • 2 Monitoring for Solar Flares and CMEs
  • 3 CME Warning Equipment Could Be Stationed at Lagrange Points
  • 4 CMEs Are Capable of Widespread Damage
CMEs Can Interfere with Electronic Communication and Navigation Equipment

There are three classifications of CMEs based on the intensity of their emitted x-rays — C-class, M-class and X-class, the highest intensity category. To put this in perspective, one X2 CME on September 6, 2017, caused widespread blackouts and the loss of all electronic communications for up to an hour on the sunlit side of Earth. It also affected navigation equipment for as much as an hour afterwarAAAAAAAA>This event may not seem significant at first. However, earlier in the final days of October 2003, now known as the “Halloween Events,” there were extreme solar storms and flares so powerful that current detectors were oversaturated. The most powerful CME of that solar storm was classified as an X45. The effects were severe:

  • Sweden lost all electrical power for over an hour.
  • Several of NASA’s observation satellites failed temporarily or had to be disabled.
  • Japan’s ADEOS-II satellite was destroyed.
  • The U.S. global positioning satellite system was severely interrupted.

An X45 extreme coronal mass ejection has not struck Earth since 1859. During what is known as the Carrington Event, telegraph equipment in the affected area burned up as the result of this CME.

本文源自: 揭秘环亚娱乐骗局

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